Hyponatremia sodium deficiency

Sodium (Salt) Deficiency Symptoms: Causes And Treatment Of Deficiency Of Sodium


Sodium deficiency, or hyponatremia, is a term used when the body’s balance of electrolytes becomes unstable. There may be too much fluid in the system, diluting the sodium, or the sodium levels themselves may be too low. While sodium deficiency can occur on its own, it can also develop because of excessive diarrhea or vomiting. Another way that it can develop is when someone experiences excessive fluid buildup, or edema, when the body cannot expel the excess water as quickly as it builds up.

Sodium is an electrolyte the body needs to help regulate blood pressure and ensure muscle and nerve cells work properly. Normal blood sodium levels fall between 135 and 145 mEq/L. When the sodium (salt) level drops below 130, the symptoms of a deficiency start manifesting. Levels of 125 or lower are risky and may cause seizures.

Recognizing the symptoms of sodium deficiency is important because when left untreated, the condition may lead to death.

Someone experiencing a mild case of sodium deficiency may not exhibit any symptoms. More advanced cases may lead to fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. If a person experiencing sodium deficiency begins vomiting, the disease accelerates much quicker, due to the electrolyte imbalances that occur when sick. In severe cases of sodium deficiency, the symptoms are mostly neurological. They include confusion, the loss of reflexive movement, convulsions, and, eventually,coma.

The treatment for sodium deficiency includes water restriction, intravenous saline, and the administration of diuretics. It is important that someone receiving treatment for this illness receives careful monitoring, because excessively rapid stabilization can lead to heart failure. If the patient develops sodium deficiency because of another health condition, such as food poisoning, that led to excessive vomiting and diarrhea, physicians will treat the initial illness as well.


Gastrointestinal Distress

Some symptoms of low sodium include gastrointestinal distress. The condition may cause a decreased appetite, nausea and vomiting. If a person with low sodium levels experiences vomiting, the hyponatremia may continue to worsen.


Cognitive Impairment

Decreased sodium levels may cause altered mental status. Most of the tissues in the body can handle the expanding tissue cells caused by the hyponatremia, but the brain cannot compensate for the increased cell size. Brain dysfunction may occur because of the changes. Symptoms of this impairment include a headache, lethargy, fatigue and confusion. As the condition worsens, a person may experience irritability and hallucinations. A decreased level of consciousness, a coma and possibly death may also occur when blood sodium levels drop.


Muscular Problems

Low levels of sodium in the blood may cause symptoms involving muscles in the body. Symptoms include problems such as spasms or cramps. Muscles may experience fatigue easily when a person has low sodium levels. Muscular weakness and seizures are additional signs of a sodium deficiency.


Severity of Symptoms

The symptoms of low blood sodium levels may vary depending on the severity of the condition. A person with a slow decrease in sodium levels may not experience any symptoms, while a person with a rapid decrease in sodium levels may have severe symptoms, according to the American Association for Clinical Chemistry. Age may also play a role in the severity of symptoms associated with low sodium levels. Older individuals may experience more severe symptoms than a younger person with the same sodium levels. General health also plays a role in symptoms because an aged, chronically ill person tends to develop more severe symptoms than a healthy, young person. Without proper treatment to correct the imbalance, the symptoms of sodium deficiency will worsen.

What are deficiency symptoms for sodium in human body ?

Low levels of salt in the body cause various symptoms and effects. The following are the common manifesting signs:

  • Disorientation
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Muscle cramps
  • Sever complications are neurological symptoms such as seizures and coma,; swelling and reduced muscle functioning.
  • excessive sweating,
  • Deficiency may lead to nausea, muscular weakness, heat exhaustion, and mental apathy.

Causes Of Salt Deficiency

  • An abnormal intake / excretion of sodium or water and disorders that damage the body’s capacity to normalize them
  • Often develops in patients taking diuretics and restricted the salt intake.
  • Severe diarrhea causes a loss of large quantities of sodium
  • Consuming excessive water dilutes the sodium in the blood.
  • Excessive consumption of beer, (chiefly water and low in sodium), produces low sodium levels

How is hyponatremia (low blood sodium) treated?

Mild chronic hyponatremia may not require treatment other than adjustments in diet, lifestyle, or medications. For severe or acute hyponatremia, treatment typically involves the intravenous administration of fluids and electrolytes. In this case medications are often needed that treat the underlying cause of the hyponatremia as well as medications to manage the accompanying symptoms